Adolescent sleep and achievement studies
After a year of extensive research and community engagement, the Board of Education voted 7-0 on Nov. 27 to change PSD’s school start times, beginning in the 2019-20 school year. Learn more on the New Bell Schedules web page.
For an overview of the PSD study and year-long process that led to the decision, visit the School Start Time Study web page.
Linked below are studies and research about adolescent sleep.
- School Start Times for Adolescents (American Academy of Pediatrics)
- The Effect of School Start Time on Academic Achievement (Hanover Research)
- School Start Times - Review of Recent Literature (Hanover Research)
- Impact of School Start Times on Student Learning (Hanover Research)
- School Start Time Changes and Sleep in Elementary School Students (Sleep Health - Appleman, Gilbert and Au)
- Rise and Shine: The Effect of School Start Times on Academic Performance from Childhood through Puberty (Heissel and Norris)
- Synchronizing Education to Adolescent Biology - Let Teens Sleep, Start School Later (Learning, Media & Technology - P. Kelley, Lockley, Foster and J. Kelley)
- Elementary Feedback on Changed Start Times (Excerpt from 1998 Report Prepared for Minneapolis Public Schools - Wahlstrom)
- AMA Supports Delayed School Start Times to Improve Adolescent Wellness (American Medical Association)
- Let Them Sleep: AAP Recommends Delaying Start Times of Middle and High Schools to Combat Teen Sleep Deprivation (American Academy of Pediatrics)
- Sleep: An Underrated Player in Athletic Performance (National Federation of State High School Associations)
- National Sleep Foundation
- University of Washington study findings (published on Sciences Advances); - NPR article based on the study - Sleepless No More In Seattle — Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens
- Danner, Fred and Phillips, B (2008) Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor Vehicle Crashes Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 6.
- Drake, Christopher, Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., Badia, P. (2003) The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep Habits and School Outcomes in Middle-school Children, SLEEP, Vol. 26, No. 4.
- Fairfax County School Board. (July 14, 2014). Blueprint for Change: Status Update. Fairfax County, VA.
- Meltzer, L., Shaheed, K. & Ambler, D. (2016) Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14:2, 140-154, DOI: 10.1080/15402002.2014.963584
- Pediatrics. (August 25, 2014). School Start Times for Adolescents. Elk Grove Village, IL.
- The Children's National Medical Center's Blueprint for Change. (April 15, 2014). School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. George Washington University.
- Wahlstrom, K., Dretzke, B., Gordon, M., Peterson, K., Edwards, K., & Gdula, J. (2014). Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.