PSD is studying later school start times options for middle and high school students. Research about adolescent sleep and achievement are listed below.
For an overview of the PSD study and year-long process, visit the School Start Time Study web page.
- School Start Times for Adolescents (American Academy of Pediatrics)
- The Effect of School Start Time on Academic Achievement (Hanover Research)
- School Start Times - Review of Recent Literature (Hanover Research)
- Impact of School Start Times on Student Learning (Hanover Research)
- School Start Time Changes and Sleep in Elementary School Students (Sleep Health - Appleman, Gilbert and Au)
- Rise and Shine: The Effect of School Start Times on Academic Performance from Childhood through Puberty (Heissel and Norris)
- Synchronizing Education to Adolescent Biology - Let Teens Sleep, Start School Later (Learning, Media & Technology - P. Kelley, Lockley, Foster and J. Kelley)
- Elementary Feedback on Changed Start Times (Excerpt from 1998 Report Prepared for Minneapolis Public Schools - Wahlstrom)
- AMA Supports Delayed School Start Times to Improve Adolescent Wellness (American Medical Association)
- Let Them Sleep: AAP Recommends Delaying Start Times of Middle and High Schools to Combat Teen Sleep Deprivation (American Academy of Pediatrics)
- Sleep: An Underrated Player in Athletic Performance (National Federation of State High School Associations)
- National Sleep Foundation
- Danner, Fred and Phillips, B (2008) Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor Vehicle Crashes Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 6.
- Drake, Christopher, Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., Badia, P. (2003) The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep Habits and School Outcomes in Middle-school Children, SLEEP, Vol. 26, No. 4.
- Fairfax County School Board. (July 14, 2014). Blueprint for Change: Status Update. Fairfax County, VA.
- Meltzer, L., Shaheed, K. & Ambler, D. (2016) Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14:2, 140-154, DOI: 10.1080/15402002.2014.963584
- Pediatrics. (August 25, 2014). School Start Times for Adolescents. Elk Grove Village, IL.
- The Children's National Medical Center's Blueprint for Change. (April 15, 2014). School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. George Washington University.
- Wahlstrom, K., Dretzke, B., Gordon, M., Peterson, K., Edwards, K., & Gdula, J. (2014). Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.