Research: Sleep and School Start Times

Adolescent sleep and achievement studies

After a year of extensive research and community engagement, the Board of Education voted 7-0 on Nov. 27 to change PSD’s school start times, beginning in the 2019-20 school year. Learn more on the New Bell Schedules web page. 

For an overview of the PSD study and year-long process that led to the decision, visit the School Start Time Study web page

Linked below are studies and research about adolescent sleep.


Additional research

  • Danner, Fred and Phillips, B (2008) Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor Vehicle Crashes Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 6.
  • Drake, Christopher, Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., Badia, P. (2003) The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep Habits and School Outcomes in Middle-school Children, SLEEP, Vol. 26, No. 4.
  • Fairfax County School Board. (July 14, 2014). Blueprint for Change: Status Update. Fairfax County, VA.
  • Meltzer, L., Shaheed, K. & Ambler, D. (2016) Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14:2, 140-154, DOI: 10.1080/15402002.2014.963584
  • Pediatrics. (August 25, 2014). School Start Times for Adolescents. Elk Grove Village, IL.
  • The Children's National Medical Center's Blueprint for Change. (April 15, 2014). School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. George Washington University.
  • Wahlstrom, K., Dretzke, B., Gordon, M., Peterson, K., Edwards, K., & Gdula, J. (2014). Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study.  Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.