Research: Sleep and School Start Times

PSD is studying later school start times options for middle and high school students. Research about adolescent sleep and achievement are listed below. 

For an overview of the PSD study and year-long process, visit the School Start Time Study web page

Español - Hora de inicio del día escolar:




Additional research:

  • Danner, Fred and Phillips, B (2008) Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor Vehicle Crashes Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 6.
  • Drake, Christopher, Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., Badia, P. (2003) The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep Habits and School Outcomes in Middle-school Children, SLEEP, Vol. 26, No. 4.
  • Fairfax County School Board. (July 14, 2014). Blueprint for Change: Status Update. Fairfax County, VA.
  • Meltzer, L., Shaheed, K. & Ambler, D. (2016) Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/Private School Students, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14:2, 140-154, DOI: 10.1080/15402002.2014.963584
  • Pediatrics. (August 25, 2014). School Start Times for Adolescents. Elk Grove Village, IL.
  • The Children's National Medical Center's Blueprint for Change. (April 15, 2014). School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. George Washington University.
  • Wahlstrom, K., Dretzke, B., Gordon, M., Peterson, K., Edwards, K., & Gdula, J. (2014). Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study.  Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.